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Organics - Heterocyclic Amines and Metal Complexes

Even though heterocyclic amines were first synthesized more than 100 years ago, today, new and unexpected uses for heterocyclic amine ligand technology, especially metal complexes generated using phenanthroline and bipyridine chemistries, have made this family of reagents more popular than ever. 

GFS has the products for any heterocyclic amine ligand application, including: 
Fiber optics
Thin films and coatings
Metal organic frameworks
Solid state chemistry
More recently, this ligand technology explosion has been accompanied by a demand for higher purity products  and for more elaborate chemical characterization. GFS has committed to the development of these products, including high purity metal complexes.  

An example of the new generation of multi-pyridyl ligands that are finding novel applications in solid state chemistry is TPT [2,4,6-tris-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine]. Its incorporation into bridged-metal configurations can impact research in magnetic, luminescent, porous, and catalytic materials. 
TPT is an essentially planar ligand that enables the construct of unusual and highly symmetrical polynuclear complexes and metal-organic frameworks.  

In a complimentary technology, the ability of ruthenium complexes to act as photo-stable fluorophores is a feature that can be incorporated into polymeric substrates derived from sol-gel, polyamide, or other polymer technologies.

The first crude heterocyclic amines that were derived over 100 years ago reflected a technical grade of purity that was sufficient to exploit their reversible electronic behavior. Eventually, they were part of a group of very sensitive, high-potential oxidation-reduction indicators that were invaluable in the pre-instrument analytical era. 

Unfortunately, the outstanding synthetic abilities of the “early” analytical chemists have been mostly forgotten. That expertise, for example, allowed the investigation of over 100 derivatives of 1,10-phenanthroline. As a result of this work, there is now available a series of oxidation-reduction indicators covering the potential range 0.85 to 1.25 volts in small steps. 

GFS Chemicals can provide nSingle-ring systems Including:

Single-ring systems

3-substituted furans

Pyrazoles & Isoxazoles


Maleic anhydrides


1,2,3,5- tetrasubstituted pyrroles


Tetrahydrofurans, Pyrrolidines

Polysubstituted Pyridines


2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidines

Piperidines, N-Benzyl-3-alkylidene

 Polycyclic/fused ring systems


1,2,3-triazoles (‘click chemistry’)

Bicyclic pyridinones

Fused pyridines from halopyrazine coupling and condensation

2-substituted furo[3,2-b]pyridines

β- and γ-carbolines







Indoles and benzofurans

 Spiro-ring systems


Spiropyridines (C2-symmetrical chiral ligands)

Spiro-ring systems

 Polycyclic/fused ring systems

For more information or to receive your free presentation on heterocycles,